Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them; Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. The primarily physiographic term “continent” as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent’s current overland boundaries.
Europe lies mainly in the temperate climate zones, being subjected to prevailing westerlies. The climate is milder in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream is nicknamed “Europe’s central heating”, because it makes Europe’s climate warmer and wetter than it would otherwise be. The Gulf Stream not only carries warm water to Europe’s coast but also warms up the prevailing westerly winds that blow across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean.
There are many reasons to visit a country – the food, the scenery, the sites and the weather. While you’re there though, one of the things that can strike you the most is the lifestyle, and if the place has a great vibe such as the European lifestyle then this can really add to a holiday and what helps make you feel free and relaxed. Furthermore it can be very interesting learning how different countries live their lives and how the European lifestyle differs from your own.
Demography of Europe
In 2016, the population of Europe was estimated to be 738 million according to the United Nations which is slightly more than one-ninth of the world’s population. A century ago, Europe had nearly a quarter of the world’s population. The population of Europe has grown in the past century, but in other areas of the world (in particular Africa and Asia) the population has grown far more quickly among the continents, Europe has a relatively high population density, second only to Asia. The most densely populated country in Europe (and in the world) is the microstate of Monaco.
Migration in Europe
Europe is home to the highest number of migrants of all global regions at 70.6 million people, the IOM’s report said. In 2005, the EU had an overall net gain from immigration of 1.8 million people. This accounted for almost 85% of Europe’s total population growth. The European Union plans to open the job centers for legal migrant workers from Africa. In 2008, 696,000 persons were given citizenship of an EU27 member state, a decrease from 707,000 the previous year.
Emigration from Europe began with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century and French and English settlers in the 17th century. But numbers remained relatively small until waves of mass emigration in the 19th century, when millions of poor families left Europe.
Today, large populations of European descent are found on every continent. European ancestry predominates in North America, and to a lesser degree in South America (particularly in Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Brazil, while most of the other Latin American countries also have a considerable population of European origins). Australia and New Zealand have large European derived populations. Africa has no countries with European-derived majorities (or with the exception of Cape Verde and probably São Tomé and Príncipe, depending on context), but there are significant minorities, such as the White South Africans. In Asia, European-derived populations predominate in Northern Asia (specifically Russians), some parts of Northern Kazakhstan and Israel
EDUCATION SYSTEM IN EUROPE
The European Education System provides early childhood education, primary education, lower secondary education, upper secondary education, post secondary non-tertiary education, short cycle tertiary education, Bachelors’ or equivalent level and Master’s or equivalent level consecutively.
a. Early childhood education
Programmes at this level are typically designed with a holistic approach to support children’s early cognitive, physical, social and emotional development and introduce young children to organized instruction outside of the family context. ISCED level 0 refers to early childhood programmes that have an intentional education component.
b. Primary education
Programmes at this level are typically designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics (i.e. literacy and numeracy) and establish a solid foundation for learning and understanding core areas of knowledge, personal and social development, in preparation for lower secondary education. Age is typically the only entry requirement at this level. The customary or legal age of entry is usually not below 5 years old or above 7 years old.
c.Lower secondary education
Programmes at this level are typically designed to build on the learning outcomes from ISCED level 1. Students enter ISCED level 2 typically between ages 10 and 13 (age 12 being the most common).
d. Upper secondary education
Programmes at this level are typically designed to complete secondary education in preparation for tertiary education or provide skills relevant to employment, or both. Pupils enter this level typically between ages 14 and 16.
e.Post-secondary non-tertiary education
Post-secondary non-tertiary education provides learning experiences building on secondary education, preparing for labour market entry as well as tertiary education. Programmes at ISCED level 4, or post-secondary non-tertiary education, are typically designed to provide individuals who completed ISCED level 3 with non-tertiary qualifications required for progression to tertiary education or for employment when their ISCED level 3 qualifications do not grant such access.
f. Short-cycle tertiary education
Programmes at this level are often designed to provide participants with professional knowledge, skills and competencies. Typically, they are practically based, occupationally-specific and prepare students to enter the labour market. However, these programmes may also provide a pathway to other tertiary education programmes.
g. Bachelors’ or equivalent level
Programmes at this level are often designed to provide participants with intermediate academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies, leading to a first degree or equivalent qualification. Entry into these programmes normally requires the successful completion of an ISCED level 3 or 4 programme with access to tertiary education.
h.Master’s or equivalent level
Programmes at this level, are often designed to provide participants with advanced academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies, leading to a second degree or equivalent qualification. Typically, programmes at this level are theoretically-based but may include practical components and are informed by state of the art research and/or best professional practice. They are traditionally offered by universities and other tertiary educational institutions.
STUDY IN EUROPE
Europe is a very popular choice for postgraduate study. This is for many reasons why people choose to do their masters degree or PhD program in Europe, not least because of Europe’s great reputation in terms of its high standard of education, as well as the general way of life, vast amounts of choices and options, and its cultural diversity.
Europe is a continent enriched with vast amounts of history and numerous tourist sights. The Leaning Tower of Pisa, the Eiffel Tower, Big Ben, the Colosseum and the Spanish Steps are just a few must-see European attractions, and they are all easily accessible when you study in Europe.
1. Destination Europe
Many students decide to pursue a postgraduate course in Europe because of the whole experience it can provide for them. Advantages include being able to get cheap trains and flights to visit a variety of countries within the EU over a free weekend or during the Christmas or Easter holidays. If you are living and studying at a university in Europe, then the rest of the continent is on your doorstep waiting to be taken advantage of.
2. A quality education
Europe’s quality of universities is extremely good and includes some of the world’s top-ranked institutions, such as University College London, University of Cambridge and University of Oxford in the UK or the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, Leiden University in the Netherlands and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich. These universities – as well as many other European universities – are all held in high regard worldwide and demonstrate Europe’s ability to provide an exceptional standard of teaching for postgraduate students.
3. Financial benefits
Pursuing a master’s degree or PhD program in Europe can also be beneficial in terms of finances as the tuitions fees can be much cheaper than those in certain other countries.
4. High standard of living
Aside from having numerous world-ranked universities that for the most part offer tuition at a reasonable cost, Europe also provides a good standard of living for postgraduate students, with most countries in Europe offering various student discounts on cinema tickets, travel, shopping and restaurants. These student benefits all help postgraduate students to experience a high quality of living and enable them to go out and experience life beyond studying, whilst paying a cheaper price.
5. Language skills
Studying abroad and in a country that speaks a language which is different to your mother tongue will definitely reflect well on you. It demonstrates that you are adventurous, adaptable and willing to learn about a different culture and way of living. It will also help you to learn a second language or even third language fluently – for example if you are from China and decide to study your masters degree or PhD programme in Italy – not only will your English improve tenfold as your course will be taught in it, but you will also learn to converse in Italian as you go about your everyday life. Learning new languages is always useful and demonstrates a willingness to learn and explore – and in today’s global times it is always well worth adding an extra language or two to your CV!
6. Job prospects
Studying in a European city is beneficial for your future career as they tend to be large and diverse in their student population. This enables the postgraduate student a wider life experience as well as offering an excellent networking potential. The high quality of higher education institutions in Europe is well known to potential employers and can certainly help you along your chosen career path.
Potential employers are likely to be impressed with your chosen European university and this can help you to enhance your career prospects. Additionally, studying in a European city as we have mentioned before will provide you with ample opportunities to network and meet a whole range of interesting business people or workers within your chosen industry, which is guaranteed to help you gain more knowledge in your (future) career.
7. Historical interest
Europe has a diverse cultural background steeped in history. It is full of museums and historical buildings which all represent different periods of time and are there to be explored, in many instances for free. Living and studying in Europe can provide a wonderful insight and knowledge for students, and this all helps go make a much more enriched postgraduate lifestyle and future.
Studying for a master’s degree or PhD program in Europe is both an adventurous and educational experience. You will be given the chance to not only learn about your chosen course, but also about the history and life of Europe. You will be able to visit many places and cities you may not have visited previously, to see how Europe differs and also sets the mark for a Western way of living. It can be an eye-opening experience that will leave you with wanting more.
Cost of Education in Europe
Cost of Education in Europe varies along with the species of course, institution and location. Majority of the cost to be borne by a student while studying in the country comprises of tuition fees of the course pursued by other expenses.
Following is the approximate estimate of Tuition fees for various levels of courses in Europe :
Courses Maximum Minimum
Undergraduate degree £18,000 £23,000
Postgraduate degree £19,000 £24,500
Cost of Living in Europe
International students should have genuine access to sufficient funds based on the assessment level of their Visa. This ensures students ability to make the most of their education and living experience in Europe. Funds projected by the student should cover Tuition, Accommodation, Books, Travel and others.£5
Applying to European Institutions
In order for your application to be processed, all required documents must be submitted. You can find out here what you need to submit to University Admissions. In order to complete your admissions application, you must provide the following documents after submitting your online application.
1. Record of completed upper secondary (high school) education
You must verify that you have successfully completed upper secondary education. This completed education, along with the awarded degree certificate or diploma, must qualify you for higher education studies in the country you received it.
2. University records
Bachelor’s studies applicants who have attended university are required to submit documentation of their studies and results.
3. Your university qualifications cannot be considered instead of your upper secondary (high school) qualifications
In order for your eligibility for courses and programmes at the bachelor’s level to be determined – and for you to compete with other applicants for available places in courses and programmes – you must submit your upper secondary qualifications. While we require your university qualifications if you’ve completed studies at a university, they cannot be used in place of your upper secondary qualifications.
4. Document translation requirements
5. Upper secondary (high school) documents issued in English, French, Spanish, German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish do not need to be translated. Upper secondary school documents in Icelandic regarding grades, such as transcripts and diplomas, do not need to be translated; however, other documents in Icelandic, such as a certificate of name change, must be translated.
If your documents are in any other language, you must also submit authorized translations of the documents into Swedish or English.
6. Documents from university level studies that are in a language other than English, French, German, Danish, or Norwegian must be translated to Swedish or English.
7. Proficiency in English
You must also present proof of proficiency in the English language. For courses and programmes taught in Sweden, the entry requirement is usually the equivalent of the Swedish upper secondary course English 6 or English course B. If your high school qualification in English does not fulfill this requirement, you must submit the official results from an internationally recognized test such as TOEFL or IELTS.
8. TOEFL results
If you’ve taken the TOEFL test, you must arrange for the official TOEFL score to be forwarded directly. Please note that it can take several weeks for your test scores to arrive at University Admissions so be sure to arrange for your results to be sent as soon as possible.
9. Identification document
In order to speed up the processing of your application, we require a copy of the page in your passport with your personal data and photograph, or a similar identification document.
10. Signed Cover sheet only when submitting documents via regular post
In order to link your documents with your admission application, you must print out a cover sheet, sign it, and submit it with the documents you submit via regular post. A cover sheet is not required when uploading documents. Please make the cover sheet is the first document in the document package you submit via regular post to University Admissions.
Students with a Swedish personal identification number need only supply that number on any documentation they submit to University Admissions in Sweden; a cover sheet is not required.
11. Change of name
If you legally change your name, for example after getting married, you must provide documentation. This documentation can be in the form of a scan of your original marriage certificate or other relevant document.
Benefits of studying in Europe
If you study in Europe, you’ll gain all the skills you need for the global economy. Study and learn with students from all corners of the world, discover a new language, and develop your independence at a university in Europe. With over 4,000 European universities and colleges to choose from, in over 30 different countries, there will be a European course and degree to suit your needs. You can learn in English, or immerse yourself fully in a new culture and language. From the Arctic Circle to the coast of Africa, you can explore a truly diverse and multicultural region, with a rich academic history spanning thousands of years.
Student Visa for Europe
In Europe, immigration for candidates wishing to apply for an European student visa requires that the following criteria be met.
1. A letter of acceptance must be provided demonstrating that an applicant has been offered a place on a full time course of study at a recognized educational institution. The course must involve at least fifteen hours of study per week.
2. Candidates must be able to demonstrate evidence of enough funds to support themselves and any dependents joining them in the country.
3. It must be shown that the course fees have been paid in full.
4. Private medical insurance must be arranged and documentary evidence of this must be provided.
5. It must be the candidate’s demonstrable intention to return to their own country at the end of their period of study.
Working in Europe
Europe is still an option for foreign workers who have skills that are in demand, as long as they play by strict EU rules. Nonresident workers are required to have a work permit for long-term professional jobs. While thousands work in Europe illegally and some employers may encourage you to work “black” to save them tax money and paperwork, don’t do it. If you are caught, you can be hit with hefty fines or even barred from the country.
Misinformation abounds, and calling the immigration authorities may leave you more confused than before. The best way to get the facts is from a lawyer who specializes in immigration law.
Work permits are generally issued for specific jobs. Technically, you are not allowed to enter a country to look for work, although you can’t help it if someone happens to offer you a position while you’re on vacation.
In Europe, the process usually works this way:
1. An employer agrees to hire you subject to a work permit being approved.
2. The employer applies for a work permit for you; this may be a simple process or very complex, depending on what country the job is in, what country you are from, and what your skills and salary level are.
3. If the permit is approved, you will probably receive a document to take to an official for processing and the payment of a fee.
4. Upon arrival at your place of employment, you may be required to register with the local police and perhaps pay another fee. If you change jobs you must start the process all over again.
Work Permits for Short-Term Jobs
Generally, a European employer who wants to hire a non-European Union citizen must demonstrate that they can’t fill the position with an EU citizen. Those with valuable skills stand a good chance of getting a permit, while those in lower-paid lines of work will not get one, except possibly for seasonal jobs in resort areas.
The employer does not have to prove that there is not a single qualified person in all of the EU, just that they have made a diligent effort to find one. This usually means that they have to advertise the position in a local newspaper for two to four weeks before the job can be offered to a foreigner.
Work Permits for Professionals
Even for those in high-paying professions, the paperwork and hassle involved can be a deal-killer. Fortunately, there are agencies that will handle the whole process for a fee. One good one is Workpermit.com, one of the oldest and largest immigration consultancy firms. They will see you through the whole process and offer specific advice for a reasonable fee. Many employers assume that getting a work permit is tougher than it actually is, so knowing about a service like Workpermit.com beforehand and mentioning it to your prospective employer can improve your prospects. The employer can make a phone call to the agency and get a good assessment of what your chances are.
Work regulations can change often; the above is not the definitive word and certainly not legal advice. You’ll have to research your particular situation to make sure you’re in compliance. If you make a good-faith effort with your employer to comply with the law, you’re unlikely to get in trouble.
Alphabetical list of countries in Europe
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- Macedonia (FYROM)
- San Marino
- United Kingdom (UK)
- Vatican City (Holy See)